REFUSE DISPOSAL

Refuse is discarded waste matter. The term “solid refuse” is now applied to refuse from houses, street sweepings, commercial, industrial and agricultural operations. Refuse is also called “litter”. Health Hazard…

EXCRETA DISPOSAL

Health Hazards : Human excreta is a source of infection. It contains pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminthic parasites and their eggs. Therefore, human excreta must be promptly removed, and disposed…

LATRINES SERVICE TYPE

The collection and removal of nightsoil (human excreta)from buckets and pails by sweepers is an ancient system of nightsoil removal, which is still prevalent, in many parts of India. This…

VENTILATION

Ventilation may be defined as exchange of air between outdoors and indoors. By this, the stagnant and vitiated air indoors is replaced by a supply of fresh air from outside….

AIR

Air is part of man s environment. It is the basis of all forms of life. Apart from supplying the life-giving oxygen, air serves many other functions. The human body…

WATER SUPPLY SOURCES

There are 3 main sources of water : (1) Rain (2) Surface water — (a) artificial lakes (b) rivers, streams, (c) ponds, and tanks (3) Ground water — (a) shallow…

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Environment The term environment implies, all the external factors — living and non-living, material and non-material — which surround man. In its modern concept, environment Includes not only the water,…

IMPURITIES IN WATER

Water is never pure in a chemical sense. It contains various kinds of impurities.These are as below : A. Dissolved Impurities (1) INORGANIC : (a) Gases : H2S, CO2 NH3,…

WATER-BORNE DISEASES

Water-borne diseases are many and varied. They may be classified as below :— (1) Viral : Viral hepatitis; poliomyelitis. (2) Bacterial : Diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid and para-typhoid fevers. (3) Protozoal…

WATER HARDNESS

Some waters readily form a lather with soap; and some with difficulty. A hard water is defined as one which will not readily form a lather, with soap. In short,…

WATER PURIFICATION

Purification of water is of the greatest importance in community health. It may be considered under the following headings: 1. Purification of water on a large scale. 2. Purification of…

CHLORINATION

Chlorination is the final step in the purification of water- It kills the harmful bacteria, if any and renders the water safe for drinking purposes. Being an oxidizing agent, it…

WATER EXAMINATION

A complete examination of water consists of the following steps : (1) Sanitary Survey (2) Sampling (3) Laboratory examination : (a) Physical examination (b) Chemical examination (c) Bacteriological examination 1….

WATER DISTRIBUTION

There are two main systems of water distribution — (1) the continuous system and (2) the intermittent system. In the continuous system, running water is available all the 24hours; in…

LIGHTING

The Requirements of good lighting : Good lighting is essential for proper vision. The requirements of good lighting are : (1) Sufficiency : The intensity of light must be sufficient…

NOISE

Noise is defined as “the wrong sound in the wrong place at the wrong time”. The term Noise pollution has recently been coined to highlight the importance of noise as…

WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM

The water carriage system (also known as the sewerage system) implies collection, removal of human excreta and waste water by a system underground pipes, called sewers to the place of…

SEWAGE

Sewage may be defined as water from a community containing solid and liquid excreta, derived from houses, street washings, factories and industries. It resembles dirty water with an unpleasant smell….

HOUSING

Housing is an important part of man’s physical environment where he spends most part of his time. By housing is meant not merely the “physical structure” providing shelter; it also…

ITCH MITE

The itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei or Acarus scabiei) is an extremely small arthropod. It is just visible to the naked eye, measuring 0.4 mm. in size. It is an ectoparasite…