Community Ophthalmology

Definition of blindness WHO has defined blindness as “Visual acuity of less than 3/60 (Snellen) or inability to count fingers in daylight at a distance of 3 meters”. In the…

Systemic Ophthalmology

OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES Vitamin-A deficiency Xerophthalmia is the term now reserved to cover all the ocular manifestations of vitamin A deficiency which has been classified by WHO (1982)….

Ocular Injuries

MECHANICAL INJURIES Extraocular foreign bodies • Common sites: On the conjunctiva, it may be lodged in the sulcus subtarsalis, fornices or bulbar conjunctiva. In the cornea, it is usually embedded…

Diseases Of The Orbit

PROPTOSIS Causes of unilateral proptosis • Congenital conditions. Dermoid cysts, congenital cystic eyeball, and orbital teratomas. • Traumatic lesions: Orbital haemorrhage, retained intra-orbital foreign body, traumatic aneurysm and emphysema of…

Diseases Of The Lacrimal Apparatus

TEAR FILM Structure 1. Mucus layer • Innermost and thinnest layer (0.02-0.05 µm) • Consists of mucin secreted by goblet cells and glands of Manz • Converts hydrophobic corneal surface into…

Diseases Of The Lids

INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS Blepharitis Squamous blepharitis • It is usually associated with seborrhoea of scalp (dandruff). In it, glands of Zeis secrete abnormal excessive neutral lipids which are splitted by corynebacterium…

Squint and Nystagmus

OCULAR MOTILITY Principle muscles of rotation • Adduction : Medial rectus; also superior and inferior recti. • Abduction : Lateral rectus; also superior and inferior obliques. • Elevation : Superior…

Vision and Neuroophthalmology

LESIONS OF VISUAL PATHWAY Site of lesion Salient features Common causes • Optic nerve Ipsilateral blindness, Absent ipsilateral direct light reflex, Absent contralateral consensual light reflex Optic atrophy, Traumatic avulsion of…

Diseases Of The Retina

CONGENITAL AND DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS Coloboma of the optic disc • Results from failure of the embryonic fissure closure. • Minor defect manifests as inferior crescent, usually associated with hypermetropia or…

Diseases Of The Vitreous

Vitreous liquefaction (synchysis) • Most common degenerative change • Causes: Senile, myopic degeneration, post- inflammatory, post-traumatic. Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) • PVD with vitreous liquefaction (synchysis) and collapse (syneresis) is…

Diseases of the Lens

CATARACT Congenital and developmental cataracts 1. Cataracta centralis pulverulenta (embryonic nuclear cataract) • Bilateral small rounded opacity with powdery appearance lying in the centre (embryonic nucleus) • Hereditary with dominant…

Glaucoma

AQUEOUS HUMOUR • Normal range of intraocular pressure is 10-21 mm Hg (mean 16 ± 2.5 mm Hg). • Normal amount of aqueous humour present in the anterior chamber is…

Diseases of the Uveal Tract

UVEITIS IRIDOCYCLITIS Etiology • Allergic uveitis is the most common variety. • Hypersensitivity to tubercular proteins is an important cause in developing countries (most common). • HLA associated uveitis; –…

Diseases of the Sclera

Episcleritis • Typically affects young adults, being twice as common in women than men. • Etiology in most cases is not known. Occurs in association with gout, rosacea, psoriasis and…

Diseases of the Cornea

KERATITIS Corneal ulcer Bacterial corneal ulcer • Commonest causative organism is pneumococcus, others are staphylococcus, pseudomonas and gonococcus. • Pathogens which can invade the normal intact corneal epithelium are: neisseria…

Diseases of the Conjunctiva

CONJUNCTIVITIS Normal flora of the conjunctiva include coagulase negative staphylococcus and diphtheroids. Common causative organisms for different types of conjunctivitis are: • Purulent (hyperacute conjunctivitis) : Gonococci, Neisseria meningitidis • Angular conjunctivitis…

Clinical Methods in Ophthalmology

COMMON OCULAR SYMPTOMS AND THEIR CAUSE Sudden painless loss of vision Central retinal artery occlusion Massive vitreous haemorrhage Retinal detachment involving macular area Ischalmic central retinal vein occlusion Sudden painless…