Child With A Malignant Disorder

Malignant disorders are relatively infrequent in children accounting for 1 – 3 % of all cancers. Though precise data is not available, a conservative estimate would suggest that 35 –…

What Is a Nervous System

Salient differences between children and adults 1. A detailed examination of CNS is difficult in a young child. Different methods are to be employed e.g. facial nerve is examined when…

A Child In Coma

Altered states of consciousness may vary from mild impairment to deep unresponsiveness and can signal present or impending life threatening situations. The different states of altered level of consciousness include…

Spinal Paraplegia And Quadriplegia

The term paraplegia denotes partial or complete weakness of both legs, and the term quadriplegia denotes partial or complete weakness of all limbs. The same spinal abnormality can cause paraplegia…

Acute Flaccid Paralysis

Definition: AFP implies paralysis of acute onset i.e. less than 4 weeks and that the affected limbs or limb is flaccid i.e. floppy or limp. The deep tendon reflexes (DTR)…

A Child With Ascites

Ascites is an accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. The course, prognosis, and treatment of ascites depend entirely on the cause. Patients with any type of ascites are at…

Hepatomegaly Splenomegaly

Enlargement of liver and spleen are common signs of many diseases in children. The organs may enlarge alone or together. While hepatomegaly alone, to an extent may be normal through…

What Is Lymphadenopathy

Lymphoid tissues of the body include thymus, lymph nodes, and intestinal lymph masses. Lymphoid growth attains peak during mid childhood (4-8 years), thereafter it declines. During this period, the child…

Seizure Disorder

The seizure in a child may indicate an underlying serious condition or it may in itself be dangerous to life. It needs mention that presence of a seizure disorder is…

A Child With A Murmur

The category of heart disease mostly prevalent in child hood is congenital heart disease while Rheumatic heart disease is the common acquired heart disease. However, Acute Rheumatic fever is more…

A Child With Anemia

Anemia is defined as a reduction of hemoglobin concentration or red cell volume below the lower extreme of normal range for the age and sex of an individual. WHO has…

Examination of Cardiovascular System

The common cardiovascular conditions in children comprises of congenital heart disease, Acute Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Arrhythmias can occur but not as common as in adults. Acute rheumatic…

A Child With Cough

Cough is a normal mechanism for maintaining lung health. It can however be a distressing symptom and at times, this can be out of proportion to the seriousness of the…

A Child With Fever

Fever is a part of the body’s defence mechanism against virus or bacteria. The body tries to create extra heat so that the foreign organism cannot survive. Hence having a…

Special Considerations

A small group of newborns will respond initially to resuscitation but then will remain compromised. The continuing difficulty will be different for every baby depending on the underlying condition. Situations…

Medications For Infant

Drugs are rarely indicated in resuscitation of the newly born infant. Bradycardia in the newborn infant is usually the result of inadequate lung inflation or profound hypoxemia, and establishing adequate…

Endotracheal Intubation

Endotracheal intubation may be indicated at several points during neonatal resuscitation Indications: 1. Prolonged positive pressure ventilation (beyond a few minutes) 2. Bag and mask ventilation is not effective 3….

Chest Compression

Ventilation is the most effective action in neonatal resuscitation and chest compressions are likely to compete with effective ventilation. Therefore one should ensure that assisted ventilation is being delivered optimally…