What Is Kidney?

LIKE THE REST of Joe’s organs, I am unappealing in appearance—reddish-brown, shaped like a bean, about the size of his fist. I am Joe’s right kidney; my partner is on…

URINE FORMATION AND EXCRETION

Urine is composed of unwanted substances that have been filtered from the blood by nephrons, the functional units of the kidneys. The urine formed in the kidneys passes through the…

INTRAVENOUS UROGRAPHY

Intravenous urography (IVU) is a procedure used to give a clear X-ray picture of the urinary tract. The procedure involves intravenous injection of a contrast medium (a substance that shows…

KIDNEY BIOPSY

A kidney biopsy is used to identify the exact nature and extent of the damage to a kidney and is usually carried out in the doctor’s office. During the procedure,…

KIDNEY TRANSPLANT

End-stage kidney failure may be treated with a kidney transplant, which can take over the function of both diseased kidneys. An organ may be donated by a living relative or…

URODYNAMIC STUDIES

Urodynamic studies arc carried out to investigate problems with bladder control, including incontinence and restricted urine flow. In these studies probes are inserted into the urethra, bladder, and rectum or…

Bladder Catheterization

In this procedure, a catheter is inserted into the bladder through the urethra (urethral catheterization) or through an incision in the abdomen (suprapubic catheterization). The catheter allows urine to drain…

What Is Bladder?

HANDS DOWN, I would win any contest for the least glamorous organ in the human body. I am a constant source of annoyance and embarrassment to Joe. I am a…

What Is Prostate?

I AM ONE OF THE hot spots in Joe’s body, a design nightmare for which Nature should hang her head. Red-brown, about the size of an English walnut, I produce…